Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities of Mankind

Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities of Mankind

In the entire world, liberalization and privatization have increased the size and role of industrial sector. However, it is the government that gives employment to maximum people, because it provides several types of public services in general such as defense, education, health, cleanliness, welfare, public transport and judiciary system. In developed countries, increase in export of services within and outside country, results in increase of service sector. Several countries are increasing their income through sale of services to foreign customers. There is a large scale trade in services at world level. Services are more important for economic development. Activities such as health and welfare, education, entertainment, commercial services, transport, etc. are related to services. Commercial services increase a company's productivity and capacity. They also aid in maintaining its functions. Publicity, staff selection, education and training given to officers are examples. Where there is developed economy, development based on service is more important. Hence in such countries, there is rise in economic level of the people engaged in the service sector. Even in developing countries, service sector is rapidly developing compared to the manufacturing sector. Hence, national income is also increasing. Demand of personnel who possess skill, experience and knowledge of service sectors is increasing in the world market. Highly paid jobs are in one or another way related to process of information storage and dissemination. In most of the countries of the world, initially primary activities develop, which are gradually followed by secondary activities and then tertiary, quaternary and quinary activities. 

Major types of services in tertiary activities 

Trade services : In trade there is activity of purchase and sale. Here the aim of service is for economic gain. Trade services are provided by rural and urban market centres. Here, retail and wholesale trade is done. Services related to cosmetics and repair are provided. Transport services : Transport services enable raw materials and finished goods to be sent from one place to another place. Railways followed by road transport provide the best services. Besides, internal, international airways and waterways also provide to and fro services. Both of them have proved very important in international trade.

Communication services : Exchange of words, messages and thoughts is done through communication services. Such services have become extensive with mobile, internet, telephone and satellites. Significance of post has not declined in the present. Any incident, news, speeches of speakers can be speedily broadcast to the audience world over by radio and TV. Hence they are known as mass media. They have become the best media for advertising and entertainment. Newspapers convey world news to their readers. Internet has revolutionized communication services.

Entertainment services : Films, TV, drama, 'bhavai, bahurupi', literature, music, etc., provide entertainment to people. Entertainment services remove stress and enhance a person's working capacity. Entertainment services provide happiness. Presently, travel, tourism, TV and internet have become major means of entertainment.

Commercial services : Advertisements, legal advices by advocates, banking services, public relation services, training that enhances staff skills, persons with knowledge of financial dealings and financial advisors, accountants and clerks, help in the development of production process and important decision making. Propaganda of products becomes easier through advertisements. Advertising agencies have their own extensive network. Information, quality and characteristics of finished product can be easily conveyed to the consumer through advertising.

Health and Education services : Local self government institutes, state governments and central government provide various services for public welfare. By providing extensive services in the fields of transport, communications, trade, entertainment, construction of roads, education, irrigation projects, power generation, health, etc., to the citizens, they contribute to their all round development. Besides they provide services in social, cultural and other fields. Schools, colleges and universities are managed by private, semi-government and government sectors, with the purpose of increasing literacy. Health services are provided through dispensaries, health centres and hospitals.

Social welfare services : Women's organizations, caste organizations, youth organizations, various party organizations also provide services in social and economic fields to people. Social activities such as child health, women empowerment and other motivational activities and compaigns like 'save the girl child', 'save water', 'protect environment' etc. bring social awareness and include a new spirit among the people.  Such social organizations provide services for social welfare.

Services for financial savings : Banks in public, private and co-operative sectors, keep financial savings of people and provide economic benefits to them. Banks aid the trade and industry sectors through maintaining financial transactions. Insurance institutes provide insurance cover to a person's life and property. Post offices of a country also help people to raise their savings.

  • Quaternary Activities 

In Quaternary Activities, man's special type of services are included. Word 'Quaternary' relates to the high intellectual professions. Its purpose is to provide new thoughts in the form of deep thinking, research and development. Few people in the world are associated with Quaternary Activities. Such people are more in developed countries. A characteristic of persons associated with such activities is that they are always mobile in search of higher salaries and better placements. Highly paid jobs are in one or another way associated with process of information storage and dissemination. The working capacity of such persons has been highly enhanced with computer and internet. With a revolution in Information Technology sector, knowledge based industries, services related to information and research services have developed in special fields. 

  • Information Technology 

The term 'Information Technology' applies to those means that aid in the composing, processing and storing and dissemination of information on a large scale. Its rapid development is due to telecommunication satellites. It is a combined form of many different techniques. It includes micro electronics, computer, communication, transmission, optic electronics, etc. New fields in technology have developed using this system. This technique is used in various sectors like trade, medicine, transport, space science, education, industries, banks, big corporate houses, government offices, etc. information resource and communication are central point of technological change. A major characteristic of present technological revolution is generation of knowledge, and dissemination of knowledge and information process in the techniques of information resource. Personal computer, internet and cellular phones have been invented due to the development of information technology. With the introduction of this system, machine related techniques in the industrial society are undergoing a thorough change. As a result, current economic activities are mainly influenced by virtual products. Knowledge, information and communication are more important in its production process. 

There has been a significant growth of industrial complexes based on science and technology. A complex of corporate houses highly developed in terms of information technology is the Silicon Valley. In Boston city of Massachusetts (USA) and in California, industrial complexes of Silicon Valley type are functioning. They are also known as science and technology park. Complexes in the field of IT are functioning in Bengaluru, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, Pune and other cities of India. A new field of genetic technology has developed based on IT. Banks, insurance companies, defense sector companies work with more and more information related economic activities. Through this means international economic systems have become very simple. The focal point of international handling of internet is the U.S.A. Many people of Asia, Africa and South America have started using it. In U.K., China, Germany and Japan economic activities are fast developing through internet. Since information has become digital, internet has proved quite useful in communications. Internet has made it possible for officials to do their office work while remaining away from their workplace or at home. Banks can transfer their money in very short time. With the use of internet transmission of information related to passport, entries of government taxes, telephone services, information related to crimes, medical reports has become very fast. Special knowledge based industries have developed. With increase in development of software for various fields, research activities related to electronics media have increased. For human resource related to information generation and dissemination, special facilities of education and training have been set up. Electronic items have been widely used in our daily life.

Due to quaternary activities, the economic system of developed countries have become more extensive. With the rise in employment opportunities in service sectors, women in big numbers are also joining such activities. Several developed nations are earning more through sale of services to foreign customers. Its share in international share is almost 20%. World's cities are developing even more. London, New York and Tokyo have become such type of metro cities. Besides these, Paris, Toronto, Los Angeles, Osaka, Mumbai, Hong Kong, Singapore, etc. have assumed important place in international economy. The three cities of London, New York and Tokyo have become focal points of information based economy. Due to modern communications and transport, the scope of quaternary activities has expanded worldwide. Financial services, insurance, information connectivity, information storage, information services system, research, new items developed by scientists, change in old patterns, etc. are quaternary activities.

  • Quinary Activities 

The decision makers and policy makers of topmost level are included in quinary activities. There is minor difference between quaternary and quinary activities. To give idea or ideologists relevant to the present, to restructure and define them, define the Data, new experiments, latest technology, most modern research works, to assess any process from a modern perspective, etc. are quinary activities. These are special high level services. Very fine intellect and unimaginable skills are essential for such services. Senior professionals, government officials in top cadre, researchers, economic, political or policy related advisors, successful experts of their respective fields, decision makers in various fields who take some new decisions though on practical grounds, advisors of administration related fields, advisors in the fields of social, economic, trade-commerce, foreign policy or in the field of latest technology. Such persons draw very high salaries and are said to be associated with quinary activities. They play an important role in establishing strong economies. Services that make IT, human resource, customer care and call centre services more productive, fast, simpler are basic aspects of quinary activities. Today, statistical data and technology services can be easily made functional in Asian, East European and African countries. One such company established in Hyderabad and Manila (Philippines), provides support services to U.S.A. and Japan regarding a GIS based Project. 

        Due to quinary activities, new industries are being established, trends of social organizations are changing, new political equations are formed and new research is being done in transport, telecommunication and space. Modern technology has become widespread. New options are now available to improve quality of human resource. Most of manufacturing patterns are undergoing a change and directions of thinking are also undergoing a radical change.

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